Patrick Henry High School
6702 Wandermere Drive, San Diego, CA 92120, USA
HIGH SCHOOL WRESTLING - A combative sport where one wrestler tries to physically control the opponent against their will without injuring them.
PHYSICAL CONTROL - To get behind the opponent’s back and arms, take them down to the mat, turn them over onto their back, and pin them. To take the opponent directly from their feet to their back and pin them. To counter the opponent’s moves to stay in the control position.
MATCH OR BOUT - When two wrestlers wrestle each other. Both wrestlers must weigh within one weight class of each other.
A MATCH in high school consists of three two-minute periods. The first period begins in neutral position with both wrestlers on their feet and facing each other. The second period begins with one wrestler choosing top, bottom, neutral, or deferring choice until the third period. The third period begins with the other wrestler choosing top, bottom, or neutral position. A college match is the same except the first period is three minutes long.
POSITIONS - Most sports have two scoring positions - offense and defense. Wrestling has three scoring positions - offense, defense, and neutral. You can only be in one of these positions at a time. Scoring match points is just going from one position to another. You can only score in certain ways from each position.If one wrestler is in neutral position, the opponent must also be in neutral position. If one wrestler is in the offensive position, the opponent must be in the defensive position.
MATCH STOPPED - If the wrestlers have their match stopped by the referee’s whistle, the referee will return them to the center of the mat and start them wrestling again in the same neutral, top, or bottom position that they were in when the match was stopped. For example: out of bounds, potentially dangerous situations, penalties, injuries, and coach’s conference.
NEUTRAL (FEET) POSITION - No Control - When neither wrestler has control over the other and they are both on their feet or knees and facing each other. Besides penalty points, the only way you can score from the neutral position is a 2 point take down.
OFFENSIVE (TOP) POSITION - In Control - The wrestler who is on top of or behind the opponent and is physically controlling them. Also the wrestler on top in referee’s position. The offensive wrestler will try to physically break down the opponent and turn the opponent’s back toward the mat (45 degree angle or less) to score near fall points or to gain a fall. Besides penalty points, the only ways you can score from the offensive position are 2, 3, or 4 point near fall.
DEFENSIVE (BOTTOM) POSITION - Being Controlled - The wrestler who is underneath and is being physically controlled. Also the wrestler on the bottom in referee’s position. The defensive wrestler will try to get out of the top wrestler’s control by escaping from or reversing the offensive wrestler. Besides penalty points, the only ways you can score from the defensive position are a 1 point escape or a 2 point reversal.
MATCH POINTS – Points scored during a match. There are eight basic ways to score match points in high school and nine basic ways in college (riding time).
TAKEDOWN - T2 - 2 points - One of the neutral wrestlers gets behind the opponent and takes them down to the mat to their stomach or side or knees or weight on all fours OR takes them directly to their back or buttocks without getting behind them and becomes the offensive wrestler. If you go from neutral to defense, you were taken down and are now on the bottom. Neutral to Offense is a two point take down.
ESCAPE - E1 - 1 point - The defensive wrestler gets out from underneath the opponent’s control and gets into the neutral position AND is facing the opponent. Defense to Neutral is a one point escape.
REVERSAL - R2 - 2 points - The defensive wrestler gets out from underneath the opponent’s control and gets on top of and/or behind the opponent in one move and becomes the offensive wrestler. To earn a reversal, you do not have to return your opponent to the mat as you would on a takedown. Defense to Offense is a two point reversal.
NEAR FALL 2 - N2 - 2 points – Awarded after the offensive wrestler turns the defensive wrestler over onto their back and holds them at a 45 degree angle or less for between 2-4 seconds (2-4 counts by the referee). Also awarded when the match is stopped due to the defensive wrestler being injured and/or screaming out to stop the match (unethical unless they are really injured) while being turned toward their back imminent near fall) before the near fall count starts or before 2 counts by the referee. Only one set of near fall points can be awarded for each pinning hold, and they cannot be awarded until after the pinning situation has ended. Defense on Back.
NEAR FALL 3 - N3 - 3 points – Awarded after the offensive wrestler holds the defensive wrestler within near fall criteria for five or more seconds in a row, instead of the two point near fall. Also awarded when the match is stopped due to the defensive wrestler being injured and/or screaming out to stop the match (unethical unless they are really injured) after being held within two point near fall criteria (2-4 count by the referee), instead of the 2 point near fall. Defense on Back Longer.
NEAR FALL 4 - N4 - 4 points – Awarded when the match is stopped due to the defensive wrestler being injured and/or screaming out to stop the match (unethical unless they are really injured) after being held within near fall criteria for five or more seconds in a row, instead of the 3 point near fall. Defense on their Back Longer and Are Injured.
PENALTY POINTS - P1 or P2 - 1 or 2 points - A wrestler in any of the three scoring positions can earn one or two penalty points when their opponent breaks the rules of wrestling. These rules include no stalling (one stall warning “S” is given before penalizing for stalling), no swearing, kicking, scratching, biting, hitting, body slamming an opponent to the mat, bending any body part beyond its normal range of motion (the referee will try to stop these situations as “potentially dangerous” before someone is injured), or using holds from the illegal holds’ list. On the penalty chart, any first penalty is 1 point. Any second penalty is 1 point. Any third penalty is 2 points. Any fourth penalty is disqualification. Unsportsmanlike conduct and flagrant misconduct can lead to immediate disqualification.
LOCKED HANDS PENALTY - A wrestler in the neutral position or defensive position can lock hands around the torso or both legs of the opponent. But it is a penalty for the offensive wrestler to lock hands (except cradles) around the torso or both legs of the defensive wrestler unless the opponent is standing on their feet or within a near fall count. Overlapping fingers is considered locked hands by the referee.
LOCKED HANDS AROUND THE HEAD PENALTY - It is a penalty from any of the three scoring positions to lock hands around the opponent’s head without an arm or leg included. You must also allow your opponent to breath in a headlock or the referee can stop it as potentially dangerous.
CAUTION and CAUTION POINT - C and C1 - 0 and 1 point - A wrestler in any of the three scoring positions can earn one caution point from the opponent’s third caution on for each time the opponent is cautioned by the referee for starting too quick before the whistle OR by lining up incorrectly when starting from referee’s position or from on the feet. A wrestler is allowed two cautions before the C1 penalty points begin. Also caution points are separate from penalty points and do not count on the penalty chart towards disqualification. Scored C, C, C1, C1, C1, etc.
TEAM POINTS - DUAL MEETS
Team points scored depend on the margin of victory of each match and are scored after each match is completed.
FALLOR PIN - 6 team points - Awarded to the team whose wrestler holds both of the opponent’s scapulas to the mat for two consecutive seconds in high school and one second in college. The match is over as soon as the fall occurs, and the one who is pinned loses automatically even though they may have been way ahead in match points at the time. The referee slaps the mat when a fall occurs. You can pin or be pinned in any of the three scoring positions.
TECHNICAL FALL - 5 team points - Awarded to the team whose wrestler has scored 15 match points more than the opponent has scored. The match is stopped as soon as the 15 point margin is achieved, except in a pinning situation where the referee will allow the offensive wrestler to try to score the fall. In college only, the winning wrestler has to have scored near fall points during the match to receive the technical fall team points. If no near fall points were scored, this 15-point-margin-win would be a major decision.
MAJOR DECISION - 4 team points - Awarded to the team whose wrestler wins by a margin of 8-14 match points more than the opponent has scored. Also in college, a 15-point-margin-win with no near fall points.
REGULAR DECISION - 3 team points - Awarded to the team whose wrestler wins by a margin of 1-7 match points more than the opponent has scored.
DRAW OR TIE - There are no more ties in wrestling as the match will be decided by sudden victory overtime from the feet and/or by tie breakers from referee’s position.
DISQUALIFICATION - 6 team points - A wrestler wins a match by disqualification when the opponent is disqualified from the match because of too many penalties OR when a wrestler is illegally injured by an opponent’s illegal hold and cannot continue wrestling. If you were injured by an opponent’s illegal hold (not a technical violation like locking hands or grabbing the uniform), you will win the match by DQ. It will not do a wrestler any good to intentionally try to injure an opponent because they will lose.
INJURY DEFAULT – 6 team points – A wrestler wins a match by injury default when the opponent is injured accidentally during the match and cannot continue wrestling.
FORFEIT - 6 team points - A wrestler wins a match by forfeit when the other team does not have a wrestler to compete against them in a dual meet.
TEAM POINTS - TOURNAMENTS
ADVANCEMENT POINTS - 2 team points for each win on the championship side of the bracket and 1 team point for each win on the consolation side of the bracket. You do not receive advancement points for a bye unless you win your next match after the bye. Also, you do not receive advancement points for winning your 1st, 3rd, 5th, or 7th place matches.
EXTRA MARGIN OF VICTORY POINTS - 1 extra team point for each major decision (8-14 match point victory margin).
1.5 extra team points for each technical fall (15 or more match point victory margin).
2 extra team points for each fall, forfeit, default, or disqualification.
Self-confidence When you wrestle, you can’t rely on anyone but yourself. You have to be accountable for your own successes and failures. For this reason, wrestlers must be confident. Without a positive attitude, there will be no success. From the onset, wrestlers learn to count on themselves, gaining confidence on and off the wrestling mats.
Discipline Waking up before the sun rises for early morning runs, working to meet a desired weight, sacrificing a social life in order to train and compete —these are only a few of a wrestler’s duties. One of the most beneficial lessons a wrestler will learn is that this sport requires an insane work ethic. Sometimes, you have to do things that aren't that “fun” to reach your goals.
Mental Toughness Wrestlers learn to be both physically and mentally tough. It takes a tremendous amount of toughness to pick yourself up off of the mat when you’re losing and it takes incredible will power to lose that last pound before a weigh-in. You’ll never be able to name a successful wrestler with a weak mind because, well, there isn't one.
Sportsmanship People who have never wrestled have a hard time understanding how mentally and physically taxing it is on competitors. Because of this, wrestlers develop more than just a sense of respect for each other — they develop an admiration. They know how difficult it is to win. Opponents are always required to shake hands before and after each match. Nevertheless, it’s not uncommon to see foes turn into friends after the final whistle blows. Matches often end with embraces, and sometimes the loser will even raise the winner’s hand!
Competitiveness Every sport teaches its athletes to be competitive. However, wrestling is different because your team essentially becomes your opponent. In order to stay on the team, you must survive the practices. In order to compete for the team, you’ll need to beat everyone on your team who is in your weight class. To win in competition, you need to train harder than your opponent. You need to want it more. No matter how you look at it, the odds are going to be stacked against you. Relax! You’ll soon thrive on good competition.
The following is courtesy of Dan Gable:
The sport of wrestling is a very natural thing for kids to do at a young age. Kids are always wrestling around in the yard or on the carpet in the house. Organized wrestling can bring in an element of safety and has a lot of other benefits as well.
Wrestling is a great sport because anybody can do it. Because you wrestle people of your same weight, size is not an issue as it may be in a sport like football, hockey, or basketball. There are now a lot of opportunities to get involved. All but maybe a couple of states have sanctioned high school state wrestling championships.
One reason wrestling is beneficial to people at a young age is from a self-defense point of view. Kids need to protect themselves from bullies or someone who may jump them on the street. You may be asking, “What are the odds?” Well, pick up a newspaper. You see kids getting kidnapped far too often. First and foremost kids need to be taught about who you can and cannot talk to and where they can be and with whom, but it’s also nice to have a little bit of a fight attitude from the point of view of protection.
The sport of wrestling also helps young people develop important qualities such as self-esteem, sportsmanship, work ethic and leadership skills. It also helps by instilling a competitive edge. A competitive edge is a real key. You really learn how to compete in wrestling
because it is a unique one on one sport. Team sports are great, don’t get me wrong, but there are some unique aspects of wrestling that make it stand out. For one, in wrestling you compete at all times. You are wrestling the whole time you are out there. Matches may last 6, 7, and up to 9 minutes, but for that short amount of time you are competing. You do not have to wait for a ball to come to you. There are very few breaks and it takes focus and concentration every second you are out there.
There are feelings that take place when you compete. There can be the feeling of not being successful, which can teach you how to overcome adversity and there is the feeling of winning. It only takes winning once to know the feeling and you'll want to strive for it again and again. It doesn't even have to be the feeling of winning an actual match. Sometimes you get a feeling of winning after completing a good hard practice because you pushed yourself and got through it.
Dermatophytosis or Tinea (Ringworm) Infection Explained
A fungal infection with fancy names of Dermatophytosis or Tinea is more commonly known as Ringworm. It is not caused by parasitic worms as the name might imply, but fungi that live on the Keratin in the outer layers of skin, hair and nails.
This infection can be found on both humans and animals and at any age, although children and those who engage in skin to skin contact sports like wrestling are at the highest risks. With vigilant checks and proper hygiene, Ringworm can be kept under control in high school and college locker rooms, but if one suspects they may have the infection it should be reported to a parent or coach for proper diagnosis.
Diagnosis and Treatment
The reddish rash that grows in a circular pattern can sometimes be misdiagnosed as other types of skin irritations like Rosea, and treatment with topical steroid creams may camouflage and mask the real culprit, Ringworm. Ringworm can also cause related secondary infections of athlete’s foot and jock itch. If the fingernails become infected they will thicken, become discolored and eventually dry up and fall off.
Infections of ringworm are worse in summer and in any hot, moist conditions. The red swollen circular patches may become flaky and are very uncomfortable. Domestic pets may also contract ringworm and spread to humans but both doctors and vets can diagnose from appearance. Ringworm can easily be spread from human to human; animal to animal and animal to human.
Either topical anti-fungal over the counter creams will be suggested or on larger areas, prescription strength creams may be needed. The infections are usually gone within three weeks. Common brands are: Lamisil, Monistat-Derm, and Mentax. If the infection is especially advanced or severe, a physician may prescribe medication to be taken orally as well.
What are effective ways to prevent?
The best way that coaches and parents can help prevent Ringworm are:
Inspect scalp, groin and feet regularly.
Most coaches can do this at weigh-ins before meets and competitions and
either make sure the areas are covered and taped or prevent players from competing.
- Get medical diagnosis quickly, if suspected.
- Wrestlers should not share any clothing, equipment or linens.
- After competitions body and hair should be washed with antibacterial and anti-fungal soaps and thoroughly dried. Tea Tree Oil is also good.
- Shoes or sandals should always be worn in locker rooms.
- Wash mats used for wrestling frequently and especially after competitions and meets with other schools and teams to kill any microorganisms that may be present.
What steps should be taken if one suspects Ringworm?
Most ringworm of the skin can be treated at home with creams you can buy without a prescription. Your rash may clear up soon after you start treatment, but it’s important to keep using the cream for as long as the label or your doctor says. This will help keep the infection from coming back. If the cream doesn't work, your doctor can prescribe pills that will kill the fungus.
Prescription from your doctor will be the best and fastest way of treating Ringworm.
Doctors recommend to restrict practice & competition for 72 hours of treatment if the Ringworm was found on the skin and 14 days of treatment if Ringworm was on the scalp.